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Thread: How do I search for all hapax legomena in Hebrews?

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jun 2006

    Smile How do I search for all hapax legomena in Hebrews?

    I was just wondering if someone could help me find all of the hapax Legomenas in Hebrews. Thanks!


  2. #2


    I suppose your best bet is to use the Word List Manager to generate a list of all the words in Hebrews in the primary window, then generate a list of all GNT words in the secondary window. Select and delete all those words in the secondary window that occur more than once (the generated word list should be in sorted order by frequency, so it should be fairly easy to highlight them.)

    Once you've done that, you can choose the select menu and select all those words common to both lists. Those that are common will then be selected. Choose the edit menu to invert your selection and choose to delete the selected words. (If you forget to invert your selection you will delete all hapax legomena instead.)

    The resulting list will be all hapax legomena in Hebrews. You can then save your word list.

    Tom Rogstad

  3. #3


    Oh yeah ... you will want to use one of the morphology databases and exclude morphology codes when you generate your lists.

    I just tried it with the GNM and found 132 words.

  4. #4


    Another way to do this is to use the Word List Manager to generate the word list, save it as an Inclusion-Exclusion list, and then execute the search using the Graphical Search Engine. The benefit of doing it this way is that you can save the word list for future use; for example, I could use it to find the hapax legomena in Hebrews, James, Matthew, etc. (I assume by your question you mean the hapax legomena in the NT, not in the book of Hebrews.)

    1. Open the WLM and load the words from the BNM (or GNM). Make sure to omit accents and morph codes.
    2. In the Main Word List, highlight and then delete all words which occur 2x or more.
    3. Go to File | Save (as IEL...). (I named mine "hapax legomena").
    4. Now go to the GSE and click on the word box. Under Search Method, click Inclusion/exclusion List and then the button "Load IEL." Load the file you saved and then click OK.
    5. At this point you can simply click Go in the GSE to execute the search, or you can set limits like you would for any other search.
    Michael H. Burer
    Associate Professor of New Testament Studies
    Dallas Theological Seminary

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Sep 2006

    Default Hapax in Hebrews

    A quick way that you can find hapax legomena, is via the Flashcard Module.

    1) Tools/Vocabulary Flashcard Module
    2) Tools/Filter
    3) Check "Filter by Frequency Range"
    4) And make filter range from 1 to 1
    5) Then check "Use Frequencies in vocabulary file"
    6) Then check "Include only words in this verse range" and type in "Heb 1:1-13:25"
    7) Then click "Apply"

    This will give you 131 hapax legomena.

    The unfortunate thing is that you cannot (or at least I don't know how) to then paste this list to your clipboard or editor or to your word processor.

    But at least, this is a very quick way of looking for hapax legomena!

    Christopher Yuan
    Wheaton College Graduate School
    M.A. Biblical Exegesis program

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