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View Full Version : How to find ALL uses of cognate accusative regardless of root?



Chris Lovelace
04-19-2013, 12:36 PM
Dear colleagues,

I would like to know if it is possible to search for every construction in Hebrew (or Greek, for that matter) in which a verbal stem ??? is used with the same stem ??? as a noun, but where ??? can be any stem.

In my case, I have found that Zechariah uses cognate accusative constructions in 1:2, 1:14-15, and 8:2. I would like to see whether the cognate accusative pattern is used with other stems in Zechariah, and also to search texts in Exodus for cognate accusatives.

I'm using BibleWorks 7 on a Windows 7 platform, but does the current version of Bibleworks have the capability for this search?

Sincerely,

Chris

Dan Witte
06-28-2018, 12:20 PM
Dear colleagues,

I would like to know if it is possible to search for every construction in Hebrew (or Greek, for that matter) in which a verbal stem ??? is used with the same stem ??? as a noun, but where ??? can be any stem.

In my case, I have found that Zechariah uses cognate accusative constructions in 1:2, 1:14-15, and 8:2. I would like to see whether the cognate accusative pattern is used with other stems in Zechariah, and also to search texts in Exodus for cognate accusatives.

I'm using BibleWorks 7 on a Windows 7 platform, but does the current version of Bibleworks have the capability for this search?

Sincerely,

Chris

I have a similar question. Ezekiel 14:13 has lim'al ma'al ("to act faithlessly an unfaithfulness," woodenly). Can anyone guide me in searching for other instances like this, in which verbal stem ??? is followed by the same ??? as a noun?

(JoŁon-Muraoka cites examples of accusatives of the affected object and accusatives of the internal object (as Ezekiel 14:13) in 125p and 125q. Under the latter J-M also cites verbal stem ??? followed by not by ??? as a noun, but by a synonymous noun.)

Thank you for any help.

Glenn Weaver
06-28-2018, 02:43 PM
There are a couple of ways that you can search for words that have the same lemma but in different part of speech. You will need to search on a morphology version, such as WTM or BGM, instead of a text version. On the Command Line you can use the #1 wildcard (and #2, #3, etc.) to indicate the lemma. Here is an example for looking for the same lemma as a verb and again as a noun, with up to 2 words intervening. Notice that this a phrase search, and so the single quote mark is used instead of a period at the beginning of the search:

'#1@v* *2 #1@n*

You may need to change the order of the words, or change the number of possible intervening words in order to find the appropriate search results. (Remember that Hebrew prefixes count as words, so you will need to account for such items in the number of intervening words.)

You can also use the Graphical Search Engine. In the Word Boxes you would use a * wildcard for each lemma, specifying noun or verb in the appropriate morphology, and then connect the Word Boxes with an Agreement Box and check the box for Lemma agreement.

You can find information about the #1 Lemma Agreement option in BW 10 Help file chapter 43 Command Line - Greek and Hebrew. You can find Command Line search examples by going to the Help file chapter 43 Command Line - Examples. Chapters 44-47 show how to use the Graphical Search Engine and include examples. I don't know the chapters in the BW 7 help file, though this information is included there, as well.

Blessings,
Glenn

Dan Witte
06-28-2018, 11:35 PM
There are a couple of ways that you can search for words that have the same lemma but in different part of speech. You will need to search on a morphology version, such as WTM or BGM, instead of a text version. On the Command Line you can use the #1 wildcard (and #2, #3, etc.) to indicate the lemma. Here is an example for looking for the same lemma as a verb and again as a noun, with up to 2 words intervening. Notice that this a phrase search, and so the single quote mark is used instead of a period at the beginning of the search:

'#1@v* *2 #1@n*

You may need to change the order of the words, or change the number of possible intervening words in order to find the appropriate search results. (Remember that Hebrew prefixes count as words, so you will need to account for such items in the number of intervening words.)

You can also use the Graphical Search Engine. In the Word Boxes you would use a * wildcard for each lemma, specifying noun or verb in the appropriate morphology, and then connect the Word Boxes with an Agreement Box and check the box for Lemma agreement.

You can find information about the #1 Lemma Agreement option in BW 10 Help file chapter 43 Command Line - Greek and Hebrew. You can find Command Line search examples by going to the Help file chapter 43 Command Line - Examples. Chapters 44-47 show how to use the Graphical Search Engine and include examples. I don't know the chapters in the BW 7 help file, though this information is included there, as well.

Blessings,
Glenn

Thank you so much, Glenn, and thank you for all the work over all the years. You and Mike answering questions on the forum these days helpfully and cheerfully speaks volumes about who you are in Christ. What a service the whole company has provided ... not just with the software.

Dan (user since 1999)

Glenn Weaver
06-30-2018, 03:45 PM
Thank you for the kind comments, Dan. I'm glad that the answer was helpful to you!

Blessings,
Glenn

DavidR
06-30-2018, 07:33 PM
There are a couple of ways that you can search for words that have the same lemma but in different part of speech. You will need to search on a morphology version, such as WTM or BGM, instead of a text version. On the Command Line you can use the #1 wildcard (and #2, #3, etc.) to indicate the lemma. Here is an example for looking for the same lemma as a verb and again as a noun, with up to 2 words intervening. Notice that this a phrase search, and so the single quote mark is used instead of a period at the beginning of the search:

'#1@v* *2 #1@n*

...

First, thanks for this. I was totally unaware of the # operator. Even if there is never another new version, I will still probably never discover all that can be done with BibleWorks!

Second, though, will this really work in Greek? I found hundreds of verses in WTM, but BGM finds none. I suspect that this is due to the differerent ways in which words are formed in the two languages. Hebrew uses the same (mostly) triliteral roots to form both verbs and nouns. But in Greek there are almost always significant differences in vowels, at least, between a verb stem and a noun stem, even if they derive ultimately from the same root. E.g., φοβεομαι φοβον (Mk. 4:41; Lk. 2:9; 1 Pet. 3:14), χαιρω χαραν (Matt. 2:10). And in fact, I don't believe that the BW Greek morphology texts are encoded in such a way as to recognize identity of lemma between verbs and nouns, so I'm not sure it could work in the GSE either (not that I know much about the GSE!).

Glenn Weaver
06-30-2018, 08:06 PM
Hi David,

You are absolutely correct! I missed that. The use of the # wildcard will not find Greek lemmas, since the lemmas for nouns and verbs are different. The appropriate means for Greek (at least for the NT) is to search using the Louw-Nida semantic domains on the Command Line. This search option is found through the Command Line context menu option.

Blessings,
Glenn

Dan Witte
07-02-2018, 01:41 PM
Thank you for the kind comments, Dan. I'm glad that the answer was helpful to you!

Blessings,
Glenn

A follow up ...

Any idea why in WTM searching #1@v* *2 #1@n* doesn't lead to Numbers 5:6 and Ezekiel 14:13, both of which have lim'al ma'al, the words which prompted the question?

WTM finds the infinitive construct with the ל preposition when one types '*@v?c* ל@Pp*, but I'd like to find the cognate phrases if possible.

Thanks again.

Dan

Glenn Weaver
07-02-2018, 01:57 PM
Hi Dan,

I'm sorry, I was too quick in my first response. The # wildcard won't find cognates reliably, for the reason that many cognates will have different lemmas. Verbs in the WTM do not have vowel points, while lemmas for nouns do have vowel points as part of the lemma.

The only way that you might be able to make this work would be to export the WTM, right a program to remove all of the vowel points from any lemmas, then compile the morphology text as some other version name. In this way you could use the # wildcard to make the search. A side-affect would be that the lexicon links to the Analysis Tab would not work for the redefined words.

I'm sorry for leading you down a dead end.

Blessings,
Glenn

Jim Wert
07-03-2018, 02:07 PM
A follow up ...

Any idea why in WTM searching #1@v* *2 #1@n* doesn't lead to Numbers 5:6 and Ezekiel 14:13, both of which have lim'al ma'al, the words which prompted the question?

The reason your search didn't find the 2 verses you wanted: in both Num 5:6 and Eze 14:13, the noun follows the verb. Since Hebrew text, and therefore Hebrew searches, read right to left, the search string you want is '#1@n* *2 #1@v* , instead of '#1@v* *2 #1@n* . When I ran it, I found 351 verses, including Num 5:6 and Eze 14:13.


Hi Dan,

I'm sorry, I was too quick in my first response. The # wildcard won't find cognates reliably, for the reason that many cognates will have different lemmas. Verbs in the WTM do not have vowel points, while lemmas for nouns do have vowel points as part of the lemma.
...
I'm sorry for leading you down a dead end.

Sorry, Glenn, but I think you apologized too soon this time. WTM searches, unless you have Vowels turned on, use unpointed lemmas. These searches seem to work fine if you get the order right. (I have to admit that it took me a few hours of trying to figure out why Dan's search didn't work until I realized he got the order wrong).

Shalom,
Jim

Glenn Weaver
07-03-2018, 02:21 PM
Hi Jim,

Thanks for the correction! It does, indeed, appear to work! Thanks for the info. I keeping learning something new all the time!

Blessings,
Glenn

MGVH
07-04-2018, 11:17 AM
Doing this kind of search in Greek does probably require using Louw-Nida domains as Glenn indicated.
If you have a specific word in mind (e.g. λεγω λογος), you can try something like:
'λεγ* *2 λογ*
to get the "speak (with) a word" sort of things. (You could also search for *λεγ* and *λογ* in the Graphical Search Engine and set up Word Order limits to find all the cognates of those words.)
You'll get a lot of false hits, of course.

This kind of search is the one area where BW did lag behind Logos and Accordance which both allow for "root" searches.
E.g., in Accordance, I can search for a verb and a noun within X words of each other that have the same root.
It took me ~15 seconds to set up the search in either Hebrew or Greek and get all the results.