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Ken Neighoff
01-17-2012, 03:44 PM
Today while working with a hard copy of BHS, I noticed in Deut. 6:4 that the ayin in Shema and the dalet in ehad are emphasized, by using enlarged letters. Then when I moved to BW9 in the WTT the emphasis for these two letters is missing.

Is there a way to show the emphasis in the electronic text like the hard copy text does?

Michael Hanel
01-17-2012, 06:15 PM
Not in the text of BibleWorks WTT itself (as far as I know). But it is marked in the morphology tagging. If you hold your mouse over it, in the Analysis window you'll get the info "Ed: Large Letter(s)"

Ken Neighoff
01-17-2012, 08:00 PM
Not in the text of BibleWorks WTT itself (as far as I know). But it is marked in the morphology tagging. If you hold your mouse over it, in the Analysis window you'll get the info "Ed: Large Letter(s)"

Michael,

Thank you for your answer. I did notice that when hovering over those words, but it does not tell you what letter is enlarged.

It would be nice to see them in the acutal text itself, justl like the hard copy. Seeing them in them enlarged in the text is a visual reminder.

ISalzman
01-17-2012, 08:19 PM
By the way, there's a very interesting reason why the ayin and the dalet are enlarged there. They form the Hebrew word 'ed, which means "witness." That the two letters are enlarged in this way speaks to Israel's role, as envisioned by the Masoretic scribes, to be a witness to the oneness of God (which, of course, is the point of Deut 6:4).

Ken Neighoff
01-17-2012, 08:32 PM
By the way, there's a very interesting reason why the ayin and the dalet are enlarged there. They form the Hebrew word 'ed, which means "witness." That the two letters are enlarged in this way speaks to Israel's role, as envisioned by the Masoretic scribes, to be a witness to the oneness of God (which, of course, is the point of Deut 6:4).


That is what I was doing some research on, why they were enlarged. Also one source said that the dalet was enlarged to prevent misreading for a resh, which would mean that Israel's God was just like other gods, and that same source said that Exodus 34:14 had a raised resh to prevent reading a dalet, also to prevent misunderstanding or heresy entering into the community.

If I was using on an electronic source, I would not have gone in search of answers that I found. Is there a way to replicate the raised or enlarged letters in the electronic text.

Michael Hanel
01-17-2012, 09:02 PM
If I was using on an electronic source, I would not have gone in search of answers that I found. Is there a way to replicate the raised or enlarged letters in the electronic text.

It would have to have more formatting to the text. For instance if you paste the text in Word, you could easily make the ayin and dalet larger size than the rest of the text. But BibleWorks browser window doesn't allow that kind of formatting, so it's one size text. I checked the text in Logos and it looks like even though they have more text-formatting abilities, they too have only one size throughout. My guess, then, is that the copyright holders of the e-text have made no attempt to present a text that has different size letters, but merely note it in the morphology.

ISalzman
01-17-2012, 10:20 PM
Ken, you are absolutely correct. Another reason the dalet at the end of the word 'echad is enlarged is to prevent anyone from reading that letter as a resh. "Echad means "one;" with a resh that same word could be read as 'acher ("another"). Imagine a verse whose very point was the oneness or uniqueness of God theoretically being read as "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is another!" To prevent that erroneous and heretical reading, the masoretes enlarged the dalet.

The ayin in the first word shema is also enlarged. The reason for that is because the word spelled by the consonants shin, mem, aleph means "perhaps" in Aramaic. (Keep in mind that ayin and aleph are sound-a-like letters; they are both silent.) Again, imagine a verse whose sole point was to remind Israel of the oneness of God that could possibly be understood as "Perhaps, O Israel, the Lord our God is one!" The ayin is therefore enlarged to emphasize that Israel should hear and believe that God is one, NOT consider that He is perhaps their unique and sole God.

As to how the electronic text could be adjusted to reflect the enlarged letters, I think that would be one for the programmers to configure.

bkMitchell
01-18-2012, 03:11 AM
Today while working with a hard copy of BHS, I noticed in Deut. 6:4 that the ayin in Shema and the dalet in ehad are emphasized, by using enlarged letters. Then when I moved to BW9 in the WTT the emphasis for these two letters is missing.

Hello Ken,

See the attached photo below:
949

ISalzman
01-18-2012, 11:42 AM
Hey Brian, from your picture, it looks like the ayin and dalet are indeed enlarged.

bkMitchell
01-18-2012, 06:49 PM
it looks like the ayin and dalet are indeed enlarged.

You are right.

It is interesting that some manuscripts and printed text differ in the way that handle the large and small letters.The BHS doesn't have all of the massoretic featurers in the way that Sefer Torah might, and the Sefer Torah is not able to have the features that a Codex might.( It is of interest to me that the Dalet has a raphe in the manuscript but those are left out in the BHS);In other texts I have the Ayin and the Dalet are not only significantly enlarged there are also on a slightly different line.

For photo evidence from a real Torah Check out: http://www.sofer.co.uk/html/large_letters.html
For a rather complete list of this phenomenon see: http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/natlang/hebrew/hebrew_bible.html

Then, check the paper BHS, notice that it is does not pick have all the large and small letters mentioned in the above sites. For, example Genesis 1:1 should in theory have an enlarged Bet, but the BHS does not print it.

The conjecture being that the Leningrad Codex was probably corrected by a latter hand in order to be assimilated into the then prevailing, evolving, correct halakhic tradition.


The point being that

The use of letters larger than usual was never legally fixed. Thus, instances of large letters varies among the manuscripts. Older manuscripts generally have fewer of these than later manuscripts. L only has three large letters. The editors of BHS have added one more, although the critical notes often mention others. The following list gives the location of these.

BHS Lev. 11:42
גָּחֹון

Num. 27:5
מִשְׁפָּטָן

Deut. 6:4
שְׁמַע

Deut. 6:4
אֶחָד


Yeivin notes three categories for the function of the large letters: 1) the letter stands at the beginning of a book or at the beginning of a new section; 2) the letter draws attention to a significant statistical point, e.g., the large letter in Lev. 11:42 marks the middle of the Torah in letters; 3) the letter shows that the reading must be precise. This is probably the function of the large letters in Deut. 6:4. In other cases, like Num. 27:5, the reason for the large letter is lost. Kelley, P. H., Mynatt, D. S., &; Crawford, T. G. (1998). The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and annotated glossary (36). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Dale A. Brueggemann
01-21-2012, 08:28 PM
It would be nice to see them in the acutal text itself....

I wonder if there's a way to search the morphology data for enlarged letters?

bkMitchell
01-21-2012, 11:08 PM
I wonder if there's a way to search the morphology data for enlarged letters?

WTM has codes for almost everything!

*@*+*N5* or *@N5*(for large letters)
WTT Leviticus 11:42 כֹּל֩ הוֹלֵ֙ךְ עַל־גָּח֜וֹן וְכֹ֣ל׀ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֗ע עַ֚ד כָּל־מַרְבֵּ֣ה רַגְלַ֔יִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לֹ֥א תֹאכְל֖וּם כִּי־שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵֽם׃
WTT Numbers 27:5 וַיַּקְרֵ֥ב מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטָ֖ן לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃ ס
WTT Deuteronomy 6:4 שְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יְהוָ֥ה׀ אֶחָֽד׃


*@*+*N6* or *@*N6*(For small letters)
WTT Proverbs 16:28 אִ֣ישׁ תַּ֭הְפֻּכוֹת יְשַׁלַּ֣ח מָד֑וֹן וְ֜נִרְגָּ֗ן מַפְרִ֥יד אַלּֽוּף׃
WTT Isaiah 44:14 לִכְרָת־ל֣וֹ אֲרָזִ֔ים וַיִּקַּ֤ח תִּרְזָה֙ וְאַלּ֔וֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־ל֖וֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָ֑עַר נָטַ֥ע אֹ֖רֶן וְגֶ֥שֶׁם יְגַדֵּֽל׃
WTT Jeremiah 39:13 וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח נְבֽוּזַרְאֲדָ֣ן רַב־טַבָּחִ֗ים וּנְבֽוּשַׁזְבָּן֙ רַב־סָרִ֔יס וְנֵרְגַ֥ל שַׂר־אֶ֖צֶר רַב־מָ֑ג וְכֹ֖ל רַבֵּ֥י מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶֽל׃



*@*+*N7* or *@*N7*( For the suspended nun)
WTT Judges 18:30 וַיָּקִ֧ימוּ לָהֶ֛ם בְּנֵי־דָ֖ן אֶת־הַפָּ֑סֶל וִ֠יהוֹנָתָן בֶּן־גֵּרְשֹׁ֙ם בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֜ה ה֣וּא וּבָנָ֗יו הָי֤וּ כֹהֲנִים֙ לְשֵׁ֣בֶט הַדָּנִ֔י עַד־י֖וֹם גְּל֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ׃
WTT Job 38:13 לֶ֭אֱחֹז בְּכַנְפ֣וֹת הָאָ֑רֶץ וְיִנָּעֲר֖וּ רְשָׁעִ֣ים מִמֶּֽנָּה׃
WTT Job 38:15 וְיִמָּנַ֣ע מֵרְשָׁעִ֣ים אוֹרָ֑ם וּזְר֥וֹעַ רָ֜מָ֗ה תִּשָּׁבֵֽר׃
WTT Psalm 80:14 יְכַרְסְמֶ֣נָּֽה חֲזִ֣יר מִיָּ֑עַר וְזִ֖יז שָׂדַ֣י יִרְעֶֽנָּה׃

And, much more including the inverted Nun, which the WTT displays see BibleWorks 8 on the following thread(http://community.logos.com/forums/p/8649/69431.aspx#69431)

ISalzman
01-22-2012, 12:09 PM
Wow, thanks for all the great information, Brian. The problem will be in remembering where to come back for this info, when at some future point in time, I'll want to execute these searches!!


Yes, you can!

You're not reiterating some famous campaign slogan of recent vintage now, would you be? I thought we were trying to keep these forums apolitical. :)