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Michael Hanel
11-13-2010, 04:55 PM
I am working on a Bible study for Ephesians and I've noticed in numerous places that people allude to a statement from the Mishnah that Jews thought Gentiles' purpose was to be fuel for the fires of hell, but I have yet to see a source actually cite where that comes from. Anyone know about this?

My intuition is that everyone is just grabbing it from Barclay's works (http://books.google.com/books?id=9AfJRoBtMpIC&pg=PA93&dq=gentiles+fuel+for+fires+of+hell&hl=en&ei=FPveTKSBIpGbnwfK88SeDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=gentiles%20fuel%20for%20fires%20of%20hell&f=false). But I'd rather do my own work. So far though I haven't found any proper attribution.

Lee
11-13-2010, 07:43 PM
You might check Zohar in Gen. fol. 104. 3.

ISalzman
11-13-2010, 08:58 PM
There is no such statement in the Mishnah and/or the entire Babylonian Talmud. I searched on all of the terms in the alleged quote: fire, fuel, Gentiles, etc. No such statement was returned. To me, this quote is spurious. The Talmud states that all of the wicked - from Israel as well as the Gentile nations - will suffer the torment of Hell. Hell is not for Gentiles only. Unfortunately, Barclay has numerous quotes, which he does not bother to document. To me, Barclay is vastly overrated.

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 12:54 AM
There is no such statement in the Mishnah and/or the entire Babylonian Talmud. I searched on all of the terms in the alleged quote: fire, fuel, Gentiles, etc. No such statement was returned. To me, this quote is spurious. The Talmud states that all of the wicked - from Israel as well as the Gentile nations - will suffer the torment of Hell. Hell is not for Gentiles only. Unfortunately, Barclay has numerous quotes, which he does not bother to document. To me, Barclay is vastly overrated.

Irving, yes this was exactly my suspicion which is why I was asking. I know it's a lot harder to prove that something doesn't have a source than that it does, but the fact that I could not find an attribution to this anywhere made me almost certain of its non-existence. But just do a google search on the phrase sometime and see how many people quote it like it's a well-documented fact, and one especially finds it in sermons of all things!!

ISalzman
11-14-2010, 10:57 AM
Irving, yes this was exactly my suspicion which is why I was asking. I know it's a lot harder to prove that something doesn't have a source than that it does, but the fact that I could not find an attribution to this anywhere made me almost certain of its non-existence. But just do a google search on the phrase sometime and see how many people quote it like it's a well-documented fact, and one especially finds it in sermons of all things!!

Michael, I agree. I too did the Google search after having searched the Talmud and Mishnah first and after finding no results there. And I also observed how many people have perpetuated Barclay's quote, sadly oftentimes in sermons. I tend to be very wary of alleged quotes and citations without attribution and/or documented references. Of course, in this case, people could always cite Barclay and his volume where he made the statement. But the problem is that Barclay nowhere identifies a source. That, to me, is problematic. This statement, in particular, could actually provide the fuel for antisemitic sentiment. People could read Barclay, or audiences could hear their pastors quoting Barclay in sermons and think, "Wow, Jews believe that?"

And then too, that brings up another issue. Suppose one could even locate an obscure similar quote like that one. Suppose in the two thousand years of often difficult church-synagogue relations, one Jewish figure made a statement similar to the one Barclay made. It would not be fair then to turn around and say "Jews believe that ..." That would be no more fair than to say that the pastor in Florida who threatened to have a Quran burning represents all Christians. What if, in the aftermath of the story of that Florida pastor, someone had made the following statement: "Christians believe the Quran should be burned." We would all agree that a statement like that would be absurd and a gross misrepresentation. Same here. And Barclay doesn't even have a source for his statement. But a Google search certainly reveals that Barclay has made a lot of believers!

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 03:17 PM
Michael, I agree. I too did the Google search after having searched the Talmud and Mishnah first and after finding no results there. And I also observed how many people have perpetuated Barclay's quote, sadly oftentimes in sermons. I tend to be very wary of alleged quotes and citations without attribution and/or documented references. Of course, in this case, people could always cite Barclay and his volume where he made the statement. But the problem is that Barclay nowhere identifies a source. That, to me, is problematic. This statement, in particular, could actually provide the fuel for antisemitic sentiment. People could read Barclay, or audiences could hear their pastors quoting Barclay in sermons and think, "Wow, Jews believe that?"

And then too, that brings up another issue. Suppose one could even locate an obscure similar quote like that one. Suppose in the two thousand years of often difficult church-synagogue relations, one Jewish figure made a statement similar to the one Barclay made. It would not be fair then to turn around and say "Jews believe that ..." That would be no more fair than to say that the pastor in Florida who threatened to have a Quran burning represents all Christians. What if, in the aftermath of the story of that Florida pastor, someone had made the following statement: "Christians believe the Quran should be burned." We would all agree that a statement like that would be absurd and a gross misrepresentation. Same here. And Barclay doesn't even have a source for his statement. But a Google search certainly reveals that Barclay has made a lot of believers!

You're completely preaching to the choir and that is precisely the point I would have made were I faced with evidence that this quotation truly exists. It is not helpful to caricature all people because of the viewpoint of one or even a few. I think it's fairly well understood that there were problems with Jewish and Gentile relations, but the testimony that the Gentiles have their own court in the Temple is proof not that Jews believed Gentiles were made for hell's fires but that Jews, even if they viewed them differently from themselves, were supposed to have a heart for Gentiles as well. Whether every Jew did this or not is a very different topic. To certain Jews, I'm a sure Gentiles were the "other." To other Jews, I'm sure that Samaritans were. To still other Jews, I'm sure that other sects of Judaism were to them the real enemies.

Anyway note how quickly the subject of the thought is changed, it's stated in some places that "Jews" believed this, elsewhere that "some of the Jews" did, elsewhere that "Rabbis" taught this, etc. Even if Barclay *were* correct, people have collapsed all nuance of his statement into something that truly is false.


For what it's worth. I believe I found Barclay's source (http://books.google.com/books?id=_961dT0z_f8C&pg=PA309&dq=gentiles+fuel+for+hell-fire+source+chaldee&hl=en&ei=GDPgTLXKL8yfnweD89D6Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=gentiles%20fuel%20for%20hell-fire%20source%20chaldee&f=false). Page 308 "The Chaldee paraphrasts [by which they apparently mean any and all Targums, not necessarily Jonathan or Onkelos (see pg 283)] do often mention their expectation of being preserved for the merits or good works of their forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and their writers add, that 'hell fire hath no power over the sinners of Israel, because Abraham and Isaac descend thither to fetch them thence.... And, 3d, They taught that all Israelites had a portion in the world to come; and that notwithstanding their sins, yea, though they were condemned here for their wickedness: whereas, of all the Gentiles, without exception, they pronounce they are fuel for hell fire."

I can't say for certain whether that is the source of Barclay, but it is an older book than Barclay's. I don't have the patience to scan through a digital copy of this to see if any kind of a source is stated. But even if it is, this still isn't saying what Barclay said, that Gentiles were created to be fuel for the fires of hell.

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 03:51 PM
You might check Zohar in Gen. fol. 104. 3.


Lee, honestly I've ignored your answer because I don't know what it means. If someone tells me see Gen. 4:6 I know what that means, but I don't have a clue what Zohar is or where to find this.

ISalzman
11-14-2010, 03:57 PM
Thanks Michael. Unfortunately, it seems that Balfour doesn't identify an original (primary) source from which he gets this either.

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 04:09 PM
Thanks Michael. Unfortunately, it seems that Balfour doesn't identify an original (primary) source from which he gets this either.

Correct, but if it were the source of Barclay it would explain why he doesn't give any source, because the place he grabbed it from also didn't have it.

For the future I will simply tell others this quotation is false until someone can show me where it really is found. But even if it were found, it's too easily misused by modern-day folks.

Adelphos
11-14-2010, 05:22 PM
This conversation reminds me of this quotation from R. D. Wilson, who was fluent in 45 languages and dialects --

"I remember that some years ago I was investigating the word 'Baca,' which you have in the English Bible -- "passing through the valley of Baca, make it a well." I found in the Hebrew dictionary that there was a traveller named Burkhart, who said that 'Baca' meant mulberry trees. That was not very englightening. I could not see how mulberries had anything to do with water. I looked up all the authority of the scholars in Germany and England since Burkhart's time and found they all quoted Burkhart! Just one scholar at the back of it! When I was travelling in the Orient, I found that we had delicious water here and there. The water sprang up apparently out of the ground in the midst of the desert. I asked my brother who was a missionary where this water came from. He said, 'They bring the water from the mountains. It is an underground aqueduct. They cover it to prevent it from evaporating.' Now the name of that underground aqueduct was Baca!" R. D. Wilson, What Is An Expert

You can find more quotes and info on R. D. Wilson here --

http://lamblion.net/Quotations/rd_wilson.htm
http://lamblion.net/Articles/ScottJones/veracity_of_the_old_testament.htm

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 06:41 PM
This conversation reminds me of this quotation from R. D. Wilson, who was fluent in 45 languages and dialects --

"I remember that some years ago I was investigating the word 'Baca,' which you have in the English Bible -- "passing through the valley of Baca, make it a well." I found in the Hebrew dictionary that there was a traveller named Burkhart, who said that 'Baca' meant mulberry trees. That was not very englightening. I could not see how mulberries had anything to do with water. I looked up all the authority of the scholars in Germany and England since Burkhart's time and found they all quoted Burkhart! Just one scholar at the back of it! When I was travelling in the Orient, I found that we had delicious water here and there. The water sprang up apparently out of the ground in the midst of the desert. I asked my brother who was a missionary where this water came from. He said, 'They bring the water from the mountains. It is an underground aqueduct. They cover it to prevent it from evaporating.' Now the name of that underground aqueduct was Baca!" R. D. Wilson, What Is An Expert

You can find more quotes and info on R. D. Wilson here --

http://lamblion.net/Quotations/rd_wilson.htm
http://lamblion.net/Articles/ScottJones/veracity_of_the_old_testament.htm

It's also another vote of confidence for BibleWorks and their commitment to giving access to the original sources so we can best make solid judgments based on what the actual texts say. Meanwhile the competition is working on publishing Barclay's commentaries.... Commentaries are interesting and sometimes they even have keen insights into the text. But by and large we'd be much better off if we were better at interacting with the sources than quoting our favorite scholar.

Adelphos
11-14-2010, 06:52 PM
...But by and large we'd be much better off if we were better at interacting with the sources than quoting our favorite scholar.

You have pinpointed why so much that is produced today is not merely worthless, but grossly inaccurate, and ESPECIALLY with regard to textual criticism and other related biblical studies. Statements by "scholars" are blindly taken as fact today, even by those who have earned, or are in the process of earning, PhD's, and thus the mythology is perpetuated ad nauseam.

When you first started this thread I said to myself, "Well, now, that's refreshing... there goes a person who is actually willing to verify something for a change. How unique in today's scholastic environment." :cool:

bkMitchell
11-14-2010, 08:37 PM
You might check Zohar in Gen. fol. 104. 3.

Sure, thing let's check it out:

ZOHAR VOL. 1 BERESEET (A) / Genesis part 1 (104)

104. King Solomon penetrated the depth OF THE SECRET of the nut, as it is written: "I went down into the garden of nuts" (Shir Hashirim 6:11). He took hold of the shell (Klipah) of the nut and looked at all its layers. He came to realize that the main pleasure of the spirits in the shell of the nut was just to cling to human beings and defile them, as it is written: "And the delights of the sons of men, women very many (Heb. shidot)" (Kohelet 2:8). THIS MEANS THAT THE DEMONS (HEB. SHEDIM) TAKE PLEASURE ONLY IN HUMAN BEINGS.

https://www2.kabbalah.com/k/index.php/p=zohar/zohar&vol=2&sec=30 (https://www2.kabbalah.com/k/index.php/p=zohar/zohar&vol=2&sec=30)



... If someone tells me see Gen. 4:6 I know what that means, but I don't have a clue what Zohar is or where to find this.


So, you want to know what the Zohar is? Okay, here's one opinion on what it is:

"A pseudepigraphic work which pretends to be a revelation from God communicated through R. Simeon ben Yoḥai to the latter's select disciples. Under the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch, written partly in Aramaic and partly in Hebrew, it contains a complete cabalistic theosophy, treating of the nature of God, the cosmogony and cosmology of the universe, the soul, sin, redemption, good, evil, etc. It first appeared in Spain in the thirteenth century, being made known through the agency of the cabalistic writer Moses ben Shem-Ṭob de Leon, who ascribed it to the miracle-working tanna Simeon ben Yoḥai. The fact that it was launched by such an unreliable sponsor as Moses de Leon, taken together with the circumstance that it refers to historical events of the post-Talmudical period, caused the authenticity of the work to be questioned from the outset. After the death of Moses de Leon, it is related, a rich man of Avila, named Joseph, offered the widow, who had been left without means, a large sum of money for the original from which her husband had made the copy; and she then confessed that her husband himselfwas the author of the work. She had asked him several times, she said, why he had chosen to credit his own teachings to another, and he had always answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the miracle-working Simeon ben Yoḥai would be a rich source of profit (see "Sefer ha-Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 89). Incredible as this story seems—for it is inconceivable that a woman should own that her deceased husband had committed forgery for the sake of lucre—it at least proves that shortly after its appearance the work was believed by some to have been written entirely by Moses de Leon. This seems to have been the opinion of the cabalistic writer Joseph ibn Waḳar, and he cautioned the public against the work, which he asserted to be full of errors."

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=142&letter=Z&search=Zohar#ixzz15J7eZXDX

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 09:16 PM
So, you want to know what the Zohar is? Okay, here's one opinion on what it is:




Thanks Brian! Not sure what Lee had in mind, but this doesn't seem very relevant at all as a source for this Gentile quotation.

bkMitchell
11-14-2010, 09:48 PM
Thanks Brian!

No, not at all. Rather, thank you for asking this question it has started an interesting discussion.


Not sure what Lee had in mind, but this doesn't seem very relevant at all as a source for this Gentile quotation. He seems to be a nice guy and I think he was probably trying to help.

However, the Zohar being a medieval work, even if it had such a quotation, would not be of help to understanding Jewish attitude toward non-jews during the times the New Testament was written.

The Zohar might help us understand how some Jews (who turned to Mysitcal ideas) under persecution during the middle ages tried find hope and meaning in this life. It would also help to see how they construed their opposition.

AND, I agree with both you and Scott that it is important to good back to the sources just as the battle cry of the reforms AD FONTES! (Back to the sources!)

ISalzman
11-14-2010, 10:22 PM
Correct, but if it were the source of Barclay it would explain why he doesn't give any source, because the place he grabbed it from also didn't have it.

For the future I will simply tell others this quotation is false until someone can show me where it really is found. But even if it were found, it's too easily misused by modern-day folks.

Agreed. Sorry for preaching to the choir before. I much admire your conscientiousness, Michael.

Michael Hanel
11-14-2010, 10:28 PM
Agreed. Sorry for preaching to the choir before. I much admire your conscientiousness, Michael.

No need for apologies here. I just wanted you to know I was on the same page as you were. :o

bobvenem
11-14-2010, 11:00 PM
FWIW, when I googled "Zohar and Gentiles," I found several quite nasty quotes, purportedly from Zohar, suggesting a deep-seated hatred of Gentiles and Christianity among the Jews. Many of the quotes were located at white supremacist websites.

Michael Hanel
11-15-2010, 12:22 AM
FWIW, when I googled "Zohar and Gentiles," I found several quite nasty quotes, purportedly from Zohar, suggesting a deep-seated hatred of Gentiles and Christianity among the Jews. Many of the quotes were located at white supremacist websites.

Well that's always a good sign! :p

Adelphos
11-15-2010, 02:36 AM
I sort of read, i.e., I scanned, the relevant section of the Soncino Zohar (104), and though I didn't read it real carefully, I didn't see anything whatsoever that appeard to support the contention, and as has already been mentioned, there is no verification of the keywords which I performed a search on in the Soncino Zohar in that section.

Lee
11-15-2010, 11:47 AM
Lee, honestly I've ignored your answer because I don't know what it means. If someone tells me see Gen. 4:6 I know what that means, but I don't have a clue what Zohar is or where to find this.

I found the reference in Gill's commentary. From his comments on Matthew 8:12, he quotes, "The Jews say, he that studies not in the law in this world, but is defiled with the pollutions of the world, he is taken וישליכו אותו הברה, 'and cast without': this is hell itself, to which such are condemned, who do not study the law.'" The reference he gives is the same I gave.

The condemnation here referenced does not seem to be limited to Gentiles, but I thought that may have been where Barclay got his idea.

Here is a link to the Zohar. http://www.sup.org/zohar/

ISalzman
11-15-2010, 12:25 PM
I found the reference in Gill's commentary. From his comments on Matthew 8:12, he quotes, "The Jews say, he that studies not in the law in this world, but is defiled with the pollutions of the world, he is taken וישליכו אותו הברה, 'and cast without': this is hell itself, to which such are condemned, who do not study the law.'" The reference he gives is the same I gave.

The condemnation here referenced does not seem to be limited to Gentiles, but I thought that may have been where Barclay got his idea.

Here is a link to the Zohar. http://www.sup.org/zohar/

Lee, the quote is certainly not limited to Gentiles; Gentiles are not even, in fact, mentioned in the statement. And that some will be cast into outer darkness is something that Jesus himself stated numerous times in the Gospels. So the assertion that some will be cast into the pit should not, of itself, be offensive to us. But for Barclay - or Balfour before him - to extrapolate from that and claim that Jews believe that Gentiles will fuel the fires of hell is an egregious and gross misquote. It does a great disservice. And comments like Barclay's and/or Balfour's only provide the fuel for the fires of antisemitism. It is sad, to say the least.

MGVH
11-15-2010, 06:56 PM
... I don't have a clue what Zohar is or where to find this.
The Zohar is a collection of medieval rabbinic writings that are the core documents of Jewish mysticism. Kabbalah stuff has been big lately because a number of celebrities (eg, Madonna) have dabbled in it. HERE (http://www.authorama.com/chapters-on-jewish-literature-17.html)is a fairly concise and accurate description.

Michael Hanel
11-15-2010, 11:50 PM
The Zohar is a collection of medieval rabbinic writings that are the core documents of Jewish mysticism. Kabbalah stuff has been big lately because a number of celebrities (eg, Madonna) have dabbled in it. HERE (http://www.authorama.com/chapters-on-jewish-literature-17.html)is a fairly concise and accurate description.

It probably means nothing good when this (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0960144/) was the first thing I thought of when I read Lee's original message. (To my credit, I have never seen the movie.)

bobvenem
11-16-2010, 08:07 AM
Ah, yes. Hummus as a lifestyle choice (ditto, Michael, though I did read the NY Times review).

ISalzman
11-16-2010, 11:29 AM
It probably means nothing good when this (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0960144/) was the first thing I thought of when I read Lee's original message. (To my credit, I have never seen the movie.)

That is funny, Michael. By the way, how do you embed hyperlinks into your text like you did? For example, how did you make the word "this" become a hyperlink to the 'Zohan' website, pray tell?

Michael Hanel
11-16-2010, 11:36 AM
That is funny, Michael. By the way, how do you embed hyperlinks into your text like you did? For example, how did you make the word "this" become a hyperlink to the 'Zohan' website, pray tell?

I forget if there are multiple views of what the forums editor looks like, but in my version of the editor window, just above where I am typing there are two rows of icons. The second row begins with font buttons for bold, italics and underline. About 12 buttons to the right is the URL link button. You highlight some text that you want to be the hyperlink and then press that button. A popup comes and asks you to give the URL of whatever you want to link to and then hit ok.

ISalzman
11-16-2010, 11:50 AM
Thanks, Michael. Here is a link to the greatest bible software (http://www.bibleworks.com). I had to try out the feature myself.

bkMitchell
11-17-2010, 10:18 PM
Here is a link to the greatest bible software (http://www.bibleworks.com)...

I agree with you!

After, using another one of the big three or big four of the Bible Software products I have come to appreciate BibleWorks way of doing things and its integration of Exegetical resources even more than before than before.

ISalzman
11-17-2010, 11:47 PM
Amen Brian.

Irving


(Zechariah 1:16 WTT) לָכֵ֞ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה שַׁ֤בְתִּי לִירוּשָׁ֙לִַם֙ בְּֽרַחֲמִ֔ים בֵּיתִי֙ יִבָּ֣נֶה בָּ֔הּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת )וְקָוֶה] (וְקָ֥ו[ יִנָּטֶ֖ה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃

jdarlack
12-01-2010, 09:23 AM
For what it's worth. I believe I found Barclay's source (http://books.google.com/books?id=_961dT0z_f8C&pg=PA309&dq=gentiles+fuel+for+hell-fire+source+chaldee&hl=en&ei=GDPgTLXKL8yfnweD89D6Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=gentiles%20fuel%20for%20hell-fire%20source%20chaldee&f=false). Page 308 "The Chaldee paraphrasts [by which they apparently mean any and all Targums, not necessarily Jonathan or Onkelos (see pg 283)] do often mention their expectation of being preserved for the merits or good works of their forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and their writers add, that 'hell fire hath no power over the sinners of Israel, because Abraham and Isaac descend thither to fetch them thence.... And, 3d, They taught that all Israelites had a portion in the world to come; and that notwithstanding their sins, yea, though they were condemned here for their wickedness: whereas, of all the Gentiles, without exception, they pronounce they are fuel for hell fire."I don't know if you've found Barclay's source. This guy, Balfour, is quoting other folks who quote from various Targum passages (p. 305 (http://books.google.com/books?id=_961dT0z_f8C&dq=gentiles%20fuel%20for%20hell-fire%20source%20chaldee&pg=PA305#v=onepage&q=gentiles%20fuel%20for%20hell-fire%20source%20chaldee&f=false)).

Here's Tg. Pseudo-Jonathan on Geneses 3:24 (Etheridge [PJE in BW]):
And He drave out the man from thence where He had made to dwell the glory of His Shekina at the first between the two Kerubaia. Before He had created the world, He created the law; He prepared the garden of Eden for the righteous, that they might eat and delight themselves with the fruit of the tree; because they would have practised in their lives the doctrine of the law in this world, and have maintained the commandments: (but) he prepared Gehinnam for the wicked, which is like the sharp, consuming sword of two edges; in the midst of it He hath prepared flakes of fire and burning coals for the judgment of the wicked who rebelled in their life against the doctrine of the law. To serve the law is better than (to eat of) the fruit of the tree of life, (the law) which the Word of the Lord prepared, that man in keeping it might continue, and walk in the paths of the way of life in the world to come.

Also the Targum on Ruth 2:12 is referenced:
12- "May the Lord reward you well in this world for your good work, and may you receive full recompense from the Lord, the God of Israel, in the world to come, because you have come to be a proselyte and to seek shelter under the shadow of His Glorious Presence. Through that merit you will be saved from the punishment of Gehinom, so that your portion will be with Sarah and Rebecca and Rachel and Leah." (Levey's translation (http://targum.info/meg/ruth.htm))

He also references Tg. Isaiah (B. Chilton's trans.):
27.1 In that time the LORD with his great and strong and hard sword will punish the king who exalts himself like Pharaoh the first king, and the king who prides himself like Sennacherib the second king, and he will slay the king who is strong as the dragon that is in the sea. 27.2 In that time, "The congregation ofIsrael which is like a choice vineyard in a good land, sing of it! 27.3 I, the LORD, keep for them the covenant of their fathers, and I will not destroy them, except that in the moment that they incite to anger before me, I make them drink the cup of their retribution. But though their sins already demand that retribution be taken from them, night and day my Memra protects them. 27.4 Behold, there are many prodigies before me! If the house of Israel set their face to do the law, would I not send my anger and my wrath among the Gentiles who are stirred up against them and destroy them as the fire destroys briers and thorn together? 27.5 Or if they laid hold of the words of my law, peace would be made with them,from then on peace would be made with them."

33.14 Sinners in Zion are shattered; fear has seized them. To the wicked whose ways are thieving they say, "Who can dwell for us in Zion, where the splendour of the Shekhinah is like a devouring fire? Who can sojourn for us in Jerusalem, where the wicked are about to be judged and handed over to Gehenna, everlasting burning?"

Given the targumic texts above, I don't know if I'd go as far as saying that the teaching was that Gehenna/hell-fire was intended to be fueled by Gentiles as much as by "the wicked".

I'd like to see a specific citation that either equates "Gentile" with "Wicked" or something to the effect. At length Balfour quotes some guy named Whitby. The same quotation from Whitby is cited in Gwynne's commentary on Galatians (p. 92 (http://books.google.com/books?id=uLACAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA92&dq=%22fuel+for+hell-fire%22+whitby&hl=en&ei=nUX2TMK6J82r8AbksKyCBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22fuel%20for%20hell-fire%22%20whitby&f=false)) where he states that it's from Whitby's comments on Romans 2:13. Gwynne's lengthy quote of Whitby's comments references the "first sentence in the Capitula Patrum (http://books.google.com/books?id=SIRCAAAAcAAJ)" (Pirke Aboth (http://www.shechem.org/torah/avot.html#chap1)), but I don't see any evidence of anti-Gentile sentiment in the various English translations of Pirke Aboth that I could consult from home.

I'll see if I can track anything down at work.