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Y2K2
08-31-2004, 05:30 AM
Greetings,
In Isaiah 59:4 the WTM Morphology shows that the verb form הרו is qal infinitive absolute. The paradigms chart on III-ה shows גלו as infinitive absolute. The American Standard Version translates the verb as "they conceive mischief". That doesn't sound like a translation appropiate to a qal Inf. Abs. or does it?

Is it not qal,present, with a third person singular pronomial suffix? That would certainly correspond to the ASV's translation.

Can anyone shed some light on this?

Thanks,

Roundtree.

Joe Fleener
08-31-2004, 08:19 AM
Greetings,
In Isaiah 59:4 the WTM Morphology shows that the verb form הרו is qal infinitive absolute. The paradigms chart on III-ה shows גלו as infinitive absolute. The American Standard Version translates the verb as "they conceive mischief". That doesn't sound like a translation appropiate to a qal Inf. Abs. or does it?

Is it not qal,present, with a third person singular pronomial suffix? That would certainly correspond to the ASV's translation.

Can anyone shed some light on this?

Thanks,

Roundtree.
It is a III-ה infinitive absoulte according to the paradigms as you have shown along with Waltke & Futato.

When commenting on this verse, Waltke states:

"the infinitives could be rendered as below (or as 'You rely ... You conceive ... '), or they could be interpreted as qualifying adverbials and rendered, 'No one calls for justice ... , relying on empty argument and speaking lies, conceiving trouble and giving birth to evil!' According to A. Rubinstein the infinitive absolute with the conjunction at the beginning of its clause continues a preceding finite verb in about forty-five passages."

It seems as thought the ASV's translation is appropriate since the infinitive is continuing the thought of the main verb.

jdarlack
08-31-2004, 08:34 AM
<B>If you place your cursor over הרו and then right-click your mouse and ask for "Lexical & Grammatical Help" (either "replace" or "new") you will get a list of lexicons and grammars and commentaries where הרו is mentioned. It just so happens that this infinitive is mentioned in Gesenius' and Waltke & O'Connor's grammars as an example of where an infinitive absolute "appears as a substitute for the finite verb."

Below are the relevant sections taken from the Grammars:

Gesenius, Section 113,y:

4. </B>Finally the infinitive absolute sometimes appears as a substitute for the finite verb, either when it is sufficient simply to mention the verbal idea (see z (http://www.bibleworks.com/forums/l%20113.z)), or when the hurried or otherwise excited style intentionally contents itself with this infinitive, in order to bring out the verbal idea in a clearer and more expressive manner (see aa (http://www.bibleworks.com/forums/l%20113.aa)).
Gesenius, Section 113,ff:

(e) For any historical tense (like the Latin historic infinitive) in lively narration (or enumeration) and descriptron, even of what is still taking place in present time, e.g. Hos 4:2 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Hos 4:2')) swearing and breaking faith, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery (in these they are busied); 10:4 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Hos 10:4')) (after a perfect); Is 21:5 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Isa 21:5')), 59:4 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Isa 59:4')), Jer 8:15 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Jer 8:15')), 14:19 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Jer 14:19')), Jb 15:35 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Job 15:35')); cf. further Jer 32:33 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Jer 32:33')), Ec 4:2 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Ecc 4:2')).—In Ez 23:30 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Eze 23:30')), Pr 12:7 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Pro 12:7')), 15:22 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Pro 15:22')), and 25:4 (javascript:BwGoToVerse('Pro 25:4')), the infinitive cf. absolute is best rendered by the passive.
Waltke & O'Connor, Page 595:

The infinitive absolute without waw may serve in place of a finite verb in making emphatic expressions and indignant questions (## 9–11).55 (http://www.bibleworks.com/forums/l%2035n55) When the infinitive absolute is used as an interjection the reader must supply the appropriate person and aspect on the basis of semantic pertinence. The distinction between the use of the infinitive as interjection or as an adverbial is somewhat blurred and subjective. For example, in # 11, the infinitives could be rendered as below (or as 'You rely ... You conceive ... '), or they could be interpreted as qualifying adverbials and rendered, 'No one calls for justice ... , relying on empty argument and speaking lies, conceiving trouble and giving birth to evil!'

David Kummerow
09-01-2004, 08:34 PM
In addition to the works Jim mentioned, you may also want to consult: Joüon–Muraoka §123x and Smith, Mark S. "The Infinitive Absolute as Predicative Verb in Ben Sira and the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Preliminary Survey." Pages 256-267 in Diggers at the Well: Proceedings of a Third International Symposium on the Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira. Edited by T. Muraoka and J.F. Elwolde. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

David Kummerow

Y2K2
09-06-2004, 11:25 AM
I thank you both, jdarlack and David, for your enlightenment. I have both Gesenius, Waltke & O'Connor in print (book) form and am going to check them both out as soon as I get a chance. The use of the infinitve absolute as a finite verb is something new for me but also the form of the inf. abs. self! The ה falls and a full holam takes its' place.

If you don't mind I will come again to this thread in the next few days. I really need to look at this.

Shalom,

Roundtree.