The Friberg Coding Scheme (GNM)

 

 

This is the scheme used in the Friberg Analytical Greek New Testament (GNM). To construct a code for a part of speech in column one, you begin with the letter in column one and append one character from each non-blank column in the same row (sometimes the character will be a dash). Codes constructed may have a ‘+’ either prefixed or postfixed to indicate that there is a relationship between the form under analysis and something in its context. Relative pronouns may also have a ‘-’ prefixed which indicates that in context it is without antecedent. The way it works should be immediately obvious after you have studied the table for a while.

 

A complete list of all the codes that occur in the Friberg Greek New Testament, along with their translations, can be examined by calling up the Morphology Assistant, choosing the GNM Version, and clicking on the "codes" button. Examining this table is a good way to learn the coding system.

 



n

noun

p pronoun

- noun

n nom
g gen
d dat
a acc
v voc

m masculine
f feminine
n neuter
-

1 1st per
2 2nd per
3 3rd per
-

s sing
p pl

 

 

v verb

i indicative
s subjunctive
o optative
m imperative
n infinitive
p participle
r participle

  (imperative sense)

p pres
i imper
f future
a aorist
r perfect
l pluperf

a active
m middle
p passive
e mid or pass
d middle dep
o passive dep
n mid or pass dep

n nom
g gen
d dat
a acc
v voc
-

m masc
f fem
n neut
-

1 1st per
2 2nd per
3 3rd per

s sing
p pl

a

adjective

p pronomial
b adverb
-

c cardinal
o ordinal
r relative
i indefinite
t interrog
d demonst
m Compar
s superl

n nom
g gen
d dat
a acc
v voc
-

m masc
f fem
n neut
-

1 1st per
2 2nd per
-

s sing
p pl

 

d

determiner (definite
article)

n nom
g gen
d dat
a acc
v voc

m masc
f fem
n neut

s sing
p pl

 

 

 

 

p

preposition

g gen
d dat
a acc

 

 

 

 

 

 

c conjunction

c coordinating
h superordinating
s subordinating

 

 

 

 

 

 

q

particle

n negative
s sentence
t interrogative
v verbal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a number of cases where the Friberg tags are reported as compound tags, i.e. tags composed of two tags separated by a special code. These codes are enumerated as follows:

 

Code

Meaning

/

This indicates two separate readings from which the reader must choose. It is a simple "or" connector.

!

This indicates that there are two or more possible parsings depending on how the text is punctuated or accented.

&

This usually indicates the presence of crasis.

^

This indicates that one form "functions as" another.

 

Friberg also uses plus signs before and after tags for various purposes as follows:

 

§         They are used to indicate verbal periphrastics. The pluses are placed on the side of the tag on which the pairing occurs.

§         They are also used (always on the right side) to indicate the unexpected location of an antecedent incorporated into a relative phrase.

§         They are also used to show that two adjacent words may be taken as a single word analyzed by a single tag.

 

The Friberg Coding Scheme is somewhat non-traditional. If you have used other schemes you will not be used to seeing, for example, pronouns and adverbs classified under the category of adjective, or a person label attached to a personal pronoun. The Friberg scheme is based as much on function as morphology and it takes some getting used to. But in many cases it provides information not available in other morphologically analyzed Greek New Testaments. Close study of Friberg's method will be amply rewarded for those who take the time to understand it. To facilitate this we have included an electronic copy of the Appendix to the printed edition of the Friberg Analytical Greek New Testament. The terminology and some of the codes are slightly different from what is used in the GNM database currently in BibleWorks, but it will nonetheless help you immensely if you are using the GNM database for detailed analysis. The Appendix is too large to include in this manual but can be found in your BibleWorks directory as AGNTDOCS.RTF. This is an RTF file which can be read by almost all mainstream Windows word processors. The same file is also available as AGNTDOCS.PDF. This is the same document in Adobe Portable Document Format. You will need the Adobe PDF Reader to view this file. It can be obtained for free from Adobe at http://www.adobe.com. The Analytical Greek New Testament front matter and appendix can also be found by opening the Lexicon Browser, displaying the Friberg ANLEX lexicon, and the selecting the AGNT documentation from the dropdown box immediately above the word list.